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Prototype PCB Assembly
Prototype PCB Assembly
Industrial Automation Prototype PCB Assembly

Industrial Automation Prototype PCB Assembly

Name: Industrial Automation Prototype PCB Assembly

Number of SMT lines: 7 high-speed SMT patch supporting production lines

SMT daily production capacity: more than 30 million points

Testing Equipment: X-RAY Tester, First Piece Tester, AOI Automatic Optical Tester, ICT Tester, BGA Rework Station

Placement speed: CHIP component placement speed (at best conditions) 0.036 S/piece

The smallest package that can be attached: 0201, the accuracy can reach ±0.04mm

Minimum device accuracy: PLCC, QFP, BGA, CSP and other devices can be mounted, and the pin spacing can reach ±0.04mm

IC type patch accuracy: it has a high level for mounting ultra-thin PCB boards, flexible PCB boards, gold fingers, etc. Can be mounted/inserted/mixed TFT display driver board, mobile phone motherboard, battery protection circuit and other difficult products

Product Details Data Sheet

Definition overview        

      Industrial automation is a general term for information processing and process control such as measurement and manipulation according to the expected goals without the need for direct human intervention by machines and equipment or production processes. Automation technology is to explore and research the methods and technologies to realize the automation process. It is a comprehensive technology involving mechanical, microelectronics, computer, machine vision and other technical fields. The industrial revolution was the midwife of automation technology. It is precisely because of the needs of the industrial revolution that automation technology broke through the egg shell and developed vigorously. At the same time, automation technology has also promoted the progress of industry. Nowadays, automation technology has been widely used in machinery manufacturing, electric power, construction, transportation, information technology and other fields, and has become the main means of improving labor productivity.

      Industrial automation is one of the important prerequisites for the start of Industry 4.0 in Germany, mainly in the fields of mechanical engineering and electrical engineering. The "embedded system" currently widely used in German and international manufacturing industries is to embed mechanical or electrical components into the controlled device. It is a special computer system designed for specific applications. Data show that this "embedded system" has an annual market benefit of up to 20 billion euros, and this figure will increase to 40 billion euros by 2020.


Industrial automation technology is a kind of use of control theory, instrumentation, computer and other information technology to realize detection, control, optimization, scheduling, management and decision-making of industrial production process, so as to increase production, improve quality, reduce consumption and ensure safety. Comprehensive high-tech, including three parts of industrial automation software, hardware and system. As one of the most important technologies in the modern manufacturing field in the 20th century, industrial automation technology mainly solves the problems of production efficiency and consistency. Whether it is a high-speed mass manufacturing enterprise or an enterprise pursuing flexibility, flexibility and customization, it must rely on the application of automation technology. The automation system itself does not directly create benefits, but it plays a significant role in improving the production process of enterprises:

(1) Improve the safety of the production process;

(2) Improve production efficiency;

(3) Improve product quality;

(4) Reduce raw material and energy consumption in the production process.

According to the statistics of the international authoritative consulting organization, the investment in the automation system and the improvement of the output of the enterprise benefit ratio are about 1:4 to 1:6. Especially in capital-intensive enterprises, the automation system accounts for less than 10% of the total investment in equipment, playing the role of "four or two thousand dollars". The traditional industrial automation system, that is, the mechatronics system, mainly controls the equipment and the production process, that is, it consists of hardware elements such as the mechanical body, the power part, the test sensing part, the actuator, the drive part, the control and signal processing unit, and the interface. Under the guidance of the purposeful information flow of software programs and electronic circuit logic, they are coordinated, organically integrated and integrated to form an orderly and regular movement of matter and energy, thereby forming an industrial automation system or product.

In the field of industrial automation, the traditional control system has experienced the development of base-type pneumatic instrument control system, electric unit combined analog instrument control system, centralized digital control system and distributed control system DCS.

With the development of control technology, computer, communication, network and other technologies, the field of information interaction and communication is rapidly covering all levels from the field equipment level of the factory to the control and management levels. Industrial control machine system generally refers to the general term of automation technology tools (including automatic measuring instruments and control devices) that measure and control industrial production processes and their electromechanical equipment and process equipment. Today, the simplest understanding of automation has also been transformed into: using machines in a broad sense (including computers) to partially replace or completely replace or surpass human physical strength.

Development History

The first stage

1940s - early 1960s

Demand driving force: market competition, resource utilization, reducing labor intensity, improving product quality, and meeting the needs of mass production. Main features: This stage is mainly a stand-alone automation stage. The main features are: various stand-alone automation processing equipment appears, and its application is continuously expanded and developed in depth. Typical achievements and products: CNC machine tools with hardware CNC system.

Second stage

Mid 60's - Early 70's

Demand driving force: Intensified market competition requires fast product updates, high product quality, and adapts to the needs of large and medium batch production and reduces labor intensity. Main features: This stage is mainly marked by the automatic production line, and its main features are: on the basis of stand-alone automation, various combined machine tools and combined production lines appear, and at the same time, software numerical control systems appear and are used in machine tools, and software such as CAD and CAM begins to be used in In the design and manufacture of actual projects, hardware processing equipment at this stage is suitable for large and medium batch production and processing. Typical achievements and products: automatic production lines for drilling, boring, milling and other processing.

The third phase


Demand motivation: Changes in the market environment have made the common problems in multi-variety, small and medium-sized batch production more and more serious, requiring automation technology to develop in its breadth and depth, so that its related technologies are highly integrated and the overall best performance can be exerted. Main features: Since the concept of CIM was first proposed by American scholars in the early 1970s, great changes have taken place in the field of automation. The main features are: CIM has been gradually accepted by people as a philosophy and a method; The corresponding technology integrates the scattered and independent unit automation technology into an optimized whole. The so-called philosophy is that enterprises should analyze and overcome the existing "bottleneck" according to the needs, so as to realize the ideological strategy of continuously improving strength and competitiveness; and as the corresponding technology for realizing integration, it is generally considered to be: data acquisition, distribution, sharing; network and communications; plant-level equipment controllers; computer hardware and software specifications, standards, etc. At the same time, concurrent engineering, as a business philosophy and working mode, has been applied and active in the field of automation technology since the late 1980s, and will further promote the integration of unit automation technology. Typical achievements and products: CIMS factory, flexible manufacturing system (FMS).

Equipment technology and production

management control

With the development of the national economy and the improvement of people's living standards, the demand for electric energy is also increasing, and the power generation equipment is also increasing accordingly. The grid structure and operation mode are becoming more and more complex, and people's requirements for power quality are also getting higher . In order to ensure the electricity consumption of users, the power grid must be managed and controlled.

The tasks of power system operation management and scheduling are complex, but in simple terms, they are:

①Try to maintain the normal operation of the power system. Safety is the top priority of the power system. Once an accident occurs in the system, the harm is difficult to estimate. Therefore, it is the top priority to strive to maintain the normal operation of the power system;

②To provide users with high-quality electric energy. The three parameters that reflect the quality of electric energy are voltage, frequency and waveform. These three parameters must be within the specified range in order to ensure the quality of electric energy. The key to stabilizing voltage is to adjust the balance of reactive power in the system, and the change of frequency is the balance of active power in the whole system, and the waveform is determined by the generator;

③Ensure the economy of power system operation and make the cost of power generation the most economical.


The power system is a system with a wide distribution area, a large amount of equipment, and a large number of information parameters. The power plant sends out electric energy to the user, and it must be transformed by several stages of transformers before transmission. The voltages at all levels are supplied to users through the transmission line, and the voltage is from low to high, and then from high to low, so as to facilitate the transmission of energy. The transformation of voltage forms different voltage levels, forming substations with different voltage levels, and transmission lines between substations, thus forming a complex power network topology. The power grid dispatching is managed and dispatched according to this topological structure of the power grid.

In general, the power grid sets up dispatch centers according to voltage levels, and the higher the voltage level, the higher the level of dispatch centers. The whole system is a pagoda-shaped network diagram. Hierarchical scheduling can simplify the topology of the network and make the transmission of information more reasonable, thereby greatly saving communication equipment and improving the stability of the system operation. According to China's situation, power system dispatching is divided into national dispatching center, regional network bureau level dispatching control center, provincial dispatching control center, regional dispatching control center, and county dispatching center. Each level directly manages and dispatches its next-level dispatch center.

Grid dispatch

Power grid dispatching automation is a general term. Due to the different tasks of the dispatching centers at all levels, the scale of the dispatching automation system is also different, but no matter which level of dispatching automation system, it has one of the most basic functions, which is the monitoring control and data collection system. Also known as SCADA system function (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition).

SCADA mainly includes the following functions:

⑴data acquisition; ⑵information display; ⑶monitoring control; ⑷alarm processing; ⑸information storage and reporting ⑹event sequence recording; ⑺data calculation; ⑻with RTU (remote terminal unit) processing function; ⑼event recall function.

Automatic power generation control function AGC: The main requirement of the AGC system is to achieve that the amount of power generated by the generator is not directly controlled by the power plant, but controlled by the superior dispatching center of the power plant according to the principle of global optimization.

Economic dispatch control function EDC (Economic Dispatch Control): The purpose of EDC is to control the output distribution of each generator in the power system to minimize the operating cost of the power grid. EDC is often included in AGC.

Security analysis function SA (Security Analyze): The SA function is a function equipped by the power grid dispatching to "prevent problems before they happen". It estimates the possible faults through the analysis of the current power grid operation status by computer, and takes measures in advance to avoid accidents. If the grid dispatching automation system has the function of SCADA+AGC/EDC+SA, it is called the energy management system EMS (Energy Management System). With the improvement of digital transmission technology and optical fiber communication technology, the automation of power grid dispatching has also entered the network. Nowadays, most of the computer configuration in power grid dispatching adopts the development of distributed computer systems. With the development of China's national economy, China has also entered the era of large power grids, large units, and ultra-high voltage transmission. It is entirely believed that with the development of China's newly-built power grid automation system, the dispatch automation level of China's power grid will be further improved and reach the world's advanced level.

Flexible manufacturing


Flexible manufacturing technology (FMS) is the sum of various technologies that realize programmed flexible manufacturing processing for various shapes of processing objects. Flexible manufacturing technology is a technology-intensive technology group. Any processing technology that focuses on flexibility and is suitable for multiple varieties and small and medium batches (including single-piece products) belongs to flexible manufacturing technology.

Flexibility can be expressed in two aspects. The first aspect is the ability of the system to adapt to changes in the external environment, which can be measured by the degree to which the system meets the requirements of new products; the second aspect is the ability of the system to adapt to internal changes, which can be used in the case of disturbances (such as machine failures). The ratio of the productivity of to the expected productivity in the absence of disturbance can be used as a measure of flexibility. "

Flexible" is relative to "rigid". The traditional "rigid" automated production line mainly realizes the mass production of a single variety. Its advantage is that the productivity is very high. Since the equipment is fixed, the utilization rate of the equipment is also very high. The cost of each product is low. But the price is quite expensive, and only one or a few similar parts can be processed. If you want to obtain other types of products, you must make major adjustments to its structure and reconfigure the various elements in the system. The workload and capital input are often comparable to the construction of a new production line. Rigid mass-manufacturing automated production lines are only suitable for the production of a few varieties of products, and it is difficult to cope with the production of small and medium batches of many varieties. With the advancement of society and the improvement of living standards As the market increases, the market needs more distinctive products that meet the individual requirements of customers in styles and functions. Fierce market competition forces changes in traditional mass production methods, requiring improvements to traditional parts production processes. Traditional manufacturing systems cannot meet The market's demand for multi-variety and small-batch products makes the flexibility of the system more and more important to the survival of the system. As the era of mass production is gradually being replaced by production that adapts to market dynamic changes, the survivability of a manufacturing automation system and Competitiveness largely depends on whether it can produce lower-cost, higher-quality products of different varieties within a very short development cycle. Flexibility has occupied a very important position.


●Machine flexibility When it is required to produce a series of different types of products, the degree of difficulty for the machine to process different parts as the products change.

●Process flexibility The first is the ability to adapt to changes in products or raw materials when the process flow remains unchanged; the second is the difficulty of changing the corresponding process in the manufacturing system to adapt to changes in products or raw materials.

●Product flexibility The first is the ability of the system to produce new products very economically and quickly after the product is updated or completely changed; the second is the inheritance and compatibility of the useful features of the old product after the product is updated.

●Maintenance flexibility Use various methods to inquire and deal with faults to ensure the ability of normal production.

●Production capacity flexibility When the production volume changes, the system can also operate economically. This is especially important for manufacturing systems that organize production according to order.

●Extended flexibility When production needs, the system structure can be easily expanded, modules can be added to form a larger system capability.

●Operation flexibility The ability to use different machines, materials, and technological processes to produce a series of products and the ability to process the same product with different processes.

Flexible Manufacturing System

It is an automated manufacturing system that is managed and controlled by a computer and is used to efficiently manufacture small and medium batches of various parts. it has:

●Multiple standard manufacturing units, CNC machine tools with automatic loading and unloading functions;

●A set of material storage and transportation system, which can transport workpieces and tools between the clamping stations of the machine tool; FMS is a programmable manufacturing system, including automatic material delivery equipment, which can realize information integration and logistics with the support of computers integrated it

●Multiple parts with similar physical characteristics and processing technology can be processed at the same time;

●Automatic replacement of tools and workpieces;

●Easy to access the Internet, easy to integrate with other systems;

●Dynamic scheduling is possible, and the logistics path can be dynamically reorganized in case of partial failure.

The scale of FMS tends to be miniaturized and low-cost, and it has evolved into a flexible manufacturing unit FMC, which may only have one machining center, but has independent automatic processing capabilities. Some FMCs have the functions of automatic transmission and monitoring management, and some FMCs can also realize 24-hour unmanned operation. The FMS used for arming is called the Flexible Armament System (FAS).

Smart manufacturing


Intelligent Manufacturing (Intelligent Manufacturing, IM) is a human-machine integrated intelligent system composed of intelligent machines and human experts. It can perform intelligent activities in the manufacturing process, such as analysis, reasoning, judgment, and conception. and decisions etc. Through the cooperation of humans and intelligent machines, to expand, extend and partially replace the mental work of human experts in the manufacturing process. It updates the concept of manufacturing automation and extends it to flexibility, intelligence and high integration.

Speaking of intelligent manufacturing, we should first introduce the "Intelligent Manufacturing System IMS" international cooperative research program initiated by Japan in April 1990. Many developed countries such as the United States, the European Community, Canada, Australia, etc. have participated in the program. The plan plans to invest a total of 1 billion US dollars and implement the preliminary scientific research plan for 100 projects.

There is no doubt that intelligence is the development direction of manufacturing automation. Artificial intelligence technologies are widely used in almost all aspects of the manufacturing process. Expert system technology can be used in engineering design, process design, production scheduling, fault diagnosis, etc. Advanced computer intelligence methods such as neural network and fuzzy control technology can also be applied to product formula, production scheduling, etc., to realize the intelligence of the manufacturing process. Artificial intelligence technology is especially suitable for solving particularly complex and uncertain problems. But it is also obvious that if it is not completely impossible to achieve intelligence in the entire process of enterprise manufacturing, at least it will be in the distant future. Some people even ask the question, will intelligent automation be realized in the next century? However, if the intelligence is only implemented in a certain part of the enterprise, and the overall optimization cannot be guaranteed, the significance of this kind of intelligence is limited.

From a broad concept, CIMS (Computer Integrated Manufacturing System), agile manufacturing, etc. can all be regarded as examples of intelligent automation. Indeed, in addition to the intelligentization of the manufacturing process itself, it is also possible to gradually realize intelligent design, intelligent management, etc., coupled with information integration, global optimization, gradually improve the intelligent level of the system, and finally establish an intelligent manufacturing system. This could be a viable route towards smart manufacturing.


Agent was originally an agent, which refers to the party authorized to represent the client in commodity economic activities. Later, it was borrowed into the fields of artificial intelligence and computer science to describe the intelligent behavior of computer software, which is called an agent. In 1992, someone predicted: "Agent-based computing may become a major breakthrough in the next generation of software development." With the wide application of artificial intelligence and computer technology in the manufacturing industry, multi-agent system technology has a great impact on product design, production and manufacturing. Even the coordination and cooperation between multiple fields in the entire life cycle of the product provides an intelligent method, and also provides a more effective means for system integration, parallel design, and realization of intelligent manufacturing.

whole subsystem

The basic component of the whole subsystem is the whole sub-system (Holon). Holon is borrowed from Greek. People use Holon to represent the smallest component of the system. The whole subsystem is composed of many different types of wholes. The most essential characteristics of the whole are:

●Autonomy, each unit can plan its own operation behavior, respond to unexpected events (such as changes in manufacturing resources, changes in manufacturing task goods requirements, etc.), and its behavior is controllable;

●Cooperative, each entity can request other entities to perform certain operations, and can also provide services for the operation applications made by other entities;

●Intelligence, the whole child has intelligence such as reasoning and judgment, which is also the internal reason for its autonomy and cooperation. The above-mentioned characteristics of the whole sub-body show that it is similar to the concept of an agent. Due to the omnipotence of the whole sub, some people also translate it as the omnipotent system.

The characteristics of the whole subsystem are:

●Agility, with self-organizing ability, can quickly and reliably build new systems.

●Flexible, highly adaptable to rapidly changing markets and changing manufacturing requirements. In addition, there are biological manufacturing, green manufacturing, fractal manufacturing and other modes. The manufacturing model mainly reflects the development of management science and is also the research result of automation and system technology. It will propose new topics for various unit automation technologies, thus affecting the development direction of manufacturing automation as a whole. Looking to the future, manufacturing automation in the 21st century will continue to advance along the track of history.

Hot technology

Industrial control automation technology is a kind of use of control theory, instrumentation, computer and other information technology to realize detection, control, optimization, scheduling, management and decision-making of industrial production process, so as to increase production, improve quality, reduce consumption, ensure safety, etc. The comprehensive technology of the purpose mainly includes three parts of industrial automation software, hardware and system. As one of the most important technologies in the modern manufacturing field in the 20th century, industrial control automation technology mainly solves the problems of production efficiency and consistency. Although the automation system itself does not directly create benefits, it can significantly improve the production process of enterprises.

The development path of China's industrial control automation is mostly to digest and absorb while introducing complete sets of equipment, and then carry out secondary development and application. China's industrial control automation technology, industry and application have made great progress, and China's industrial computer system industry has been formed. Industrial control automation technology is developing in the direction of intelligence, networking and integration.

1. Low-cost industrial control automation based on industrial PC will become the mainstream

As we all know, since the 1960s, western countries have relied on technological progress (that is, new equipment, new technology, and computer applications) to transform traditional industries, resulting in rapid industrial development. The biggest change in the world at the end of the 20th century was the formation of the global market. The global market has led to unprecedented fierce competition, prompting companies to speed up the time to market new products (Time to Market), improve quality (Quality), reduce costs (Cost) and improve service systems (Service), this is the T.Q.C.S. of the enterprise. Although the computer integrated manufacturing system (CIMS) combines information integration and system integration, and pursues a more complete T.Q.C.S., it enables enterprises to "deliver the right information to the right person in the right way at the right time, so as to make the right decision." , that is, "five correct". However, this kind of automation needs to invest a lot of money. It is a high-investment, high-efficiency and high-risk development model, which is difficult for most small and medium-sized enterprises to adopt. In China, small and medium-sized enterprises and quasi-large enterprises are still taking the road of low-cost industrial control automation.

Industrial control automation mainly includes three levels, from bottom to top are basic automation, process automation and management automation, the core of which is basic automation and process automation.

In the traditional automation system, the basic automation part is basically monopolized by PLC and DCS, and the process automation and management automation part is mainly composed of various imported process computers or minicomputers. The high prices of its hardware, system software and application software make many Businesses stay away.

Since the 1990s, due to the development of PC-based industrial computers (referred to as industrial PCs), PC-based automation systems composed of industrial PCs, I/O devices, monitoring devices, and control networks have been rapidly popularized and become a reality An important path to low-cost industrial automation.

As PC-based controllers have proven to be as reliable as PLCs and are accepted by operations and maintenance personnel, one manufacturer after another is adopting PC-based control for at least some of their production. The PC-based control system is easy to install and use, and has advanced diagnostic functions, providing more flexible options for system integrators. From a long-term perspective, the PC-based control system has low maintenance costs. Because programmable logic controllers (PLCs) are the most threatened by PC control, PLC vendors are uneasy about the use of PCs. In fact, they also joined the PC control "wave".

Industrial PCs have developed extremely rapidly in China. From a global perspective, industrial PCs mainly include two types: IPC industrial computer and Compact PCI industrial computer and their deformation machines, such as AT96 bus industrial computer. Because basic automation and process automation have high requirements on the operation stability, hot plug and redundant configuration of industrial PC, the existing IPC can no longer fully meet the requirements, and will gradually withdraw from this field, and will be replaced by CompactPCI-based industrial computer , while IPC will occupy the management automation layer. In 2001, the state set up a major industrial automation project of "industrialization of open control systems based on industrial control computers". 50% of the domestic market and realize industrialization.

A few years ago, when "soft PLC" appeared, the industry thought that industrial PC would replace PLC. However, today's industrial PC has not replaced PLC, mainly for two reasons: one is the system integration reason; the other is the reason for the software operating system Windows NT. A successful PC-based control system must have two points: one is that all work must be done by software on one platform; the other is to provide customers with everything they need. It can be predicted that the competition between industrial PCs and PLCs will mainly be in high-end applications, with complex data and high equipment integration. It is impossible for industrial PCs to compete with low-cost micro PLCs, which are the fastest growing segment of the PLC market. From the perspective of development trends, the future of control systems is likely to exist between industrial PCs and PLCs, and signs of these integrations have already appeared.

Like PLCs, the industrial PC market has remained flat over the past two years. Industrial PC software is cheap compared to PLCs.

2. PLC is developing in the direction of miniaturization, networking, PCization and openness

There are about 200 PLC manufacturers in the world, producing more than 300 kinds of products. The domestic PLC market is still dominated by foreign products, such as Siemens, Modicon, A-B, OMRON, Mitsubishi, and GE. After years of development, there are about 30 domestic PLC manufacturers, but none of them has formed a large-scale production capacity and brand-name products. It can be said that PLC has not yet formed a manufacturing industrialization in China. In terms of PLC application, China is very active, and the application industry is also very wide. Experts estimate that the sales volume of PLC in the domestic market in 2000 was 150,000 to 200,000 sets (of which imports accounted for about 90%), about 2.5 to 3.5 billion yuan, and the annual growth rate was about 12%. It is estimated that by 2005, the national PLC demand will reach about 250,000 sets, about 3.5 to 4.5 billion yuan.

The PLC market also reflects the state of the world's manufacturing industry, which declined sharply after 2000. However, according to Automation Research Corp's forecast, despite the global economic downturn, the PLC market will recover. It is estimated that the global PLC market was 7.6 billion US dollars in 2000, and will return to 7.6 billion US dollars by the end of 2005, and continue to grow slightly.

Miniaturization, networking, PCization and openness are the main directions for the future development of PLC. In the early days of PLC-based automation, PLCs were bulky and expensive. But in the last few years, micro-PLCs (less than 32 I/O) have appeared, and the price is only a few hundred euros. With the further improvement and development of Soft PLC (Soft PLC) control configuration software, the market share of Soft PLC configuration software and PC-based control will gradually increase.

Currently, one of the biggest development trends in the field of process control is the expansion of Ethernet technology, and PLC is no exception. Nowadays more and more PLC suppliers begin to offer Ethernet interface. It is believed that PLC will continue to transfer to the direction of open control system, especially the control system based on industrial PC.

⒊DCS system designed for the integration of measurement, control and management

The distributed control system DCS (Distributed Control System) came out in 1975, and the manufacturers are mainly concentrated in the United States, Japan, Germany and other countries. Since the mid-to-late 1970s, China first introduced foreign DCS from large-scale imported equipment sets, and the first batch of imported projects included chemical fiber, ethylene, and chemical fertilizers. At that time, DCS in China's main industries (such as electric power, petrochemical, building materials and metallurgy, etc.) was basically imported. In the early 1980s, at the same time of introduction, digestion and absorption, the technical research on the development of localized DCS began.

The annual growth rate of China's DCS market is about 20%, and the annual market volume is about 3 billion (3.5 billion yuan. Since DCS has no substitute products in the large-scale automatic control devices in the petrochemical industry in the past five years, its market growth rate will not decline. According to According to statistics, by 2005, more than 1,000 sets of equipment in China's petrochemical industry need to be controlled by DCS; more than 10 million kilowatts of generating units are newly installed in the power system every year, and DCS is required for monitoring; many companies have used DCS for nearly 15 to 20 years, and need to update and remodel.

4. The control system is developing in the direction of fieldbus (FCS)

Due to the development of 3C (Computer, Control, Communication) technology, the process control system will develop from DCS to FCS (Fieldbus Control System). FCS can completely disperse PID control to field devices (Field Device). The FCS based on the field bus is a new generation of fully decentralized, fully digital, fully open and interoperable production process automation system. Structure brings about revolutionary changes.

According to the definition of IEC61158, the field bus is a digital, two-way transmission, multi-branch communication network between the field devices installed in the manufacturing or process area and the automatic control device in the control room. The field bus enables the measurement and control equipment to have digital calculation and digital communication capabilities, improves the measurement, transmission and control accuracy of signals, and improves the functions and performance of the system and equipment. The SC65C/WG6 working group of IEC/TC65 began to work on the introduction of a single fieldbus standard in the world in 1984. After 16 years of hard work, IEC61158-2 was launched in 1993, and the subsequent standard formulation fell into chaos. .

After the development of the computer control system has gone through the base-type pneumatic instrument control system, the electric unit combined analog instrument control system, the centralized digital control system and the distributed control system (DCS), it will move towards the direction of the field bus control system (FCS) develop. Although the FCS based on the field bus is developing rapidly, there is still a lot of work to be done in the development of FCS, such as unified standards and intelligent instruments. In addition, the maintenance and transformation of traditional control systems also require DCS, so it will take a long process for FCS to completely replace traditional DCS, and DCS itself is also constantly developing and improving. What is certain is that FCS combined with new technologies such as DCS, industrial Ethernet, and advanced control will have strong vitality. Industrial Ethernet and fieldbus technology, as a flexible, convenient and reliable data transmission method, has been more and more applied in the industrial field, and will occupy a more important position in the control field.

⒌Instrument technology is developing in the direction of digitization, intelligence, networking and miniaturization

After 50 years of development, China's instrumentation industry has established a solid foundation, and initially formed a relatively complete production, scientific research, and marketing system, becoming the second largest instrumentation producer in Asia except Japan. As digital, intelligent, networked, and miniaturized products gradually become mainstream internationally, the gap will further widen. Most of China's high-end and large-scale instruments and equipment rely on imports. For mid-range products and many key components, foreign products account for more than 60% of the Chinese market, while domestic analytical instruments account for less than 2/1000 of the global market.

The main development trend of instrumentation technology in the future: instrumentation will develop in the direction of intelligence, resulting in intelligent instrumentation; PC-based measurement and control equipment, virtual instrument technology will develop rapidly; instrumentation will be networked, resulting in network instruments and remote measurement and control systems.

Some suggestions: develop products with independent intellectual property rights and master core technologies; strengthen the system integration capability of the instrumentation industry; further expand the application field of instruments.

6. Numerical control technology is developing towards intelligence, openness, networking and informationization

Since the Massachusetts Institute of Technology developed the first experimental CNC system in 1952, with the rapid development of computer technology, various open CNC systems of different levels have emerged and developed rapidly. In terms of structure, the CNC systems in the world today can be roughly divided into four types: 1. Traditional CNC systems; 2. Open CNC systems with "PC embedded in NC" structure; 3. Open "NC embedded in PC" structure Type CNC system; 4. SOFT type open CNC system.

The development and production of China's CNC system has made great progress through the introduction, digestion and absorption of the "Seventh Five-Year Plan", the "Eighth Five-Year Plan" and the "Ninth Five-Year Plan" industrialization. , production base, trained a group of numerical control talents, initially formed its own numerical control industry, and also drove the development of electromechanical control and transmission control technology. At the same time, after years of development, the economical CNC system with Chinese characteristics has greatly improved the performance and reliability of the product, and has gradually been recognized by users.

The overall development trend of foreign numerical control system technology development is: the new generation of numerical control system is developing towards PC and open architecture; the driving device is developing towards communication and digitalization; To intelligent development.

In the 21st century, human society will gradually enter the era of knowledge economy, knowledge will become the capital and driving force for the development of science and technology and production, and the machine tool industry, as the equipment sector for the development of machine manufacturing, industry and the entire national economy, undoubtedly has a strategic The importance and importance of sexuality will also become more prominent.

Intelligence, openness, networking, and informatization have become the main trends in the development of CNC systems and CNC machine tools in the future: to high-speed, high-efficiency, high-precision, and high-reliability; to modularization, intelligence, flexibility, networking and Development in the direction of integration; development in the direction of PC-based and openness; the emergence of a new generation of numerical control processing technology and equipment, and the development of machining in the direction of virtual manufacturing; the combination of information technology (IT) and machine tools, advanced mechatronics machine tools will development; nanotechnology will form a new development trend, and there will be new breakthroughs; energy-saving and environmental protection machine tools will accelerate development and occupy the vast market.

⒎Industrial control network will develop towards the combination of wired and wireless

Wireless LAN (Wireless LAN) technology can be very convenient to connect network devices wirelessly, and people can access network resources anytime, anywhere, and at will, which is an important direction for the development of modern data communication systems. Wireless LAN can provide Ethernet interconnection function without using network cables. While promoting the development of network technology, WLAN is also changing people's way of life. The wireless network communication protocol usually adopts IEEE802.3 for point-to-point mode, and 802.11 for point-to-multipoint mode. Wireless LAN can be implemented on the basis of ordinary LAN through wireless hub, wireless access station (AP), wireless bridge, wireless modem and wireless network card, etc., and wireless network card is the most commonly used. The future research directions of WLAN mainly focus on issues such as security, mobile roaming, network management and the relationship with other mobile communication systems such as 3G.

In the field of industrial automation, there are thousands of sensors, detectors, computers, PLCs, card readers and other devices that need to be connected to each other to form a control network. Usually, the communication interface provided by these devices is RS-232 or RS-485 . The wireless LAN device uses an isolated signal converter to convert the RS-232 serial port signal of the industrial equipment to the wireless LAN and Ethernet signal, conforms to the wireless LAN IEEE 802.11b and Ethernet IEEE 802.3 standards, and supports standard TCP/IP network communication The protocol effectively expands the networking communication capabilities of industrial equipment.

The combination of computer network technology, wireless technology and smart sensor technology has produced a new concept of "networked smart sensor based on wireless technology". This networked smart sensor based on wireless technology enables the data of industrial sites to be transmitted, published and shared directly on the network through wireless links. Wireless local area network technology can provide high-bandwidth wireless data links and flexible network topology for the communication between various intelligent field devices, mobile robots and various automation equipment in the factory environment, effectively making up for in some special environments It overcomes the shortcomings of the wired network and further improves the communication performance of the industrial control network.

⒏Industrial control software is developing in the direction of advanced control

As an important part of industrial control software, great progress has been made in the development of domestic man-machine interface configuration software in recent years. The combination of software and hardware provides a relatively complete solution for the integration of measurement, control and management in enterprises. On this basis, industrial control software will develop from man-machine interface and basic strategy configuration to advanced control.

Advanced Process Control APC (Advanced Process Control) has no strict and uniform definition. Generally, the control algorithms that are based on mathematical models and must be implemented by computers are collectively referred to as advanced process control strategies. Such as: adaptive control; predictive control; robust control; intelligent control (expert system, fuzzy control, neural network), etc.

Because advanced control and optimization software can create huge economic benefits, so the value of these software has multiplied. Dozens of companies in the world have launched hundreds of advanced control and optimization software products, forming a powerful process industry application software industry worldwide. Therefore, it is of great significance to develop China's advanced control and optimization software with independent intellectual property rights, break the monopoly of foreign products, and replace imports.

In the future, industrial control software will continue to develop towards standardization, networking, intelligence and openness.

Industrial informatization refers to the realization of information collection, information transmission, information processing, and comprehensive utilization of information on an integrated platform through information infrastructure in the process of industrial production, management, and operation.

Since the vigorous development of industrial automation is an effective way and means to speed up the transformation and upgrading of traditional industries, improve the overall quality of enterprises, improve the overall national strength of the country, adjust the industrial structure, and quickly invigorate large and medium-sized enterprises, the country will continue to implement a series of industrial process automation high-tech industries Special project of industrialization, using informatization to drive industrialization, promote the further development of industrial automation technology, strengthen technological innovation, realize industrialization, solve deep-seated problems faced by national economic development, further improve the overall quality and comprehensive national strength of the national economy, and achieve leapfrog development.

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