What is PCB Assembly production process

Abstract: In the PCB Assembly production process, a lot of production equipment is needed to assemble a circuit board. The processing capacity of a PCBA processing plant is determined by the performance level of its production equipment. The basic production equipment required for PCBA production includes solder paste printer, placement machine, reflow soldering, AOI detector, component clipper, wave soldering, tin furnace, washing machine, ICT test fixture, FCT test and treatment PCBA processing plants of different scales will have different production equipment.

Table of content

1. Solder paste printing machine

2. Mounter

3. Reflow soldering

4. AOI detector

5. Component trimming machine

6. Wave soldering

7. Tin furnace

8. Plate washer

9. ICT test fixture

10. FCT test fixture

11. Burn-in test

PCB Assembly production process

 

1. Solder paste printing machine

Modern solder paste printers generally consist of plate loading, solder paste addition, imprinting, and circuit board transfer. Its working principle is: first fix the circuit board to be printed on the printing positioning table, and then the solder paste or red glue is printed on the corresponding pad through the stencil by the left and right scrapers of the printer. The transfer station is input to the placement machine for automatic placement.

 

2. Mounter

Mounting machine: also known as “mounting machine”, “Surface Mount System” (Surface Mount System), in the production line, it is configured after the solder paste printer, by moving the placement head to accurately mount the surface components A production equipment placed on PCB pads. According to the placement accuracy and placement speed, it is usually divided into high-speed and pan-speed.

 

3. Reflow soldering

There is a heating circuit inside the reflow soldering, which heats air or nitrogen to a high enough temperature and blows it to the PCB board where the component has been attached, so that the solder on both sides of the component is melted and bonded to the motherboard. The advantage of this process is that the temperature is easy to control, oxidation can be avoided during the welding process, and the production and processing costs are easier to control.

 

4. AOI detector

The full name of AOI (Automatic Optic Inspection) is automatic optical inspection, which is a PCB Assembly production process production equipment that detects common defects encountered in welding production based on optical principles. AOI is a new type of test technology that is emerging, but it is developing rapidly, and many manufacturers have introduced AOI test equipment. During automatic inspection, the machine automatically scans the PCB through the camera, collects images, compares the tested solder joints with the qualified parameters in the database, after image processing, checks out the defects on the PCB, and displays/marks the defects through the display or automatic signs Come out and be repaired by maintenance personnel.

PCB Assembly production process

 

5. Component trimming machine

It is used to cut and deform the pin components.

 

6. Wave soldering

Wave soldering is to make the soldering surface of the plug-in board directly contact the high-temperature liquid tin to achieve the purpose of soldering. The high-temperature liquid tin maintains a slope, and a special device makes the liquid tin form a wave-like phenomenon, so it is called “wave soldering”. The main material is solder bars.

 

7. Tin furnace

In general, the tin furnace refers to a welding tool used in electronic welding. For discrete components PCB board, the welding consistency is good, the operation is convenient, fast, and the work efficiency is high. It is a good helper for your production and processing.

 

8. Plate washer

The PCBA processing plants is used to clean the PCBA board, which can remove the residue on the board after soldering.

 

9. ICT test fixture

ICT Test mainly uses the test probes of the ICT test fixture to contact the test points of the PCB layout to detect the PCBA circuit open circuit, short circuit, and welding condition of all parts.

 

10. FCT test fixture

FCT (Functional Test) It refers to the simulated operating environment (stimulus and load) provided to the test target board (UUT: Unit Under Test) to make it work in various design states, so as to obtain the parameters of each state to verify the UUT The function of the test method is good or bad. Simply put, it is to load a suitable stimulus to the UUT and measure whether the response of the output end meets the requirements.

 

11. Burn-in test

The burn-in test rack can test PCBA boards in batches, and test out the PCBA boards with problems by waiting for a long time to simulate the user’s operation.


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