Abstract: SMT PCB assembly is called surface-mount or surface mount technology, which is currently the most popular technology and process in the electronics assembly industry. Next, Kingford will introduce the development of the smt industry to you.
table of Contents:
1. Development history of smt industry
2. The status quo of industry development
3. Industry development trend
4. Domestic market competition pattern
5. The main barriers to entry into this industry
1. Development history of smt industry
The smt industry evolved from thick and thin film hybrid circuits. Its development has mainly gone through four stages, the first stage (1960-1975): miniaturization, hybrid integrated circuits; the second stage (1976-1980): reduced size, increased circuit functions and applied to video recorders, camcorders, and digital cameras; The third stage (1980-1995): reduce costs and vigorously develop production equipment, improve product cost-effective; the fourth stage (1995-present): micro-assembly, high-density assembly, three-dimensional assembly.
2. The status quo of industry development
SMT in our country started in the early 1980s for nearly 30 years. Since entering the 21st century, China’s electronic information product manufacturing industry has accelerated its pace of development, with a rapid growth rate of more than 20% every year, becoming a pillar industry of the national economy. With the rapid development of China’s electronics manufacturing industry, China’sSMT PCB assembly technology and industry have also developed rapidly, and the overall scale is also at the forefront of the world. The reason why China’s smt industry is in such a good situation is mainly because the relevant departments of the Chinese government attach great importance to the development of the electronic information product manufacturing industry and have formulated good development policies and introduction policies. In countries and regions where the world’s electronic information product manufacturing industry is developed, such as the United States, Japan, South Korea, Europe, and my country’s Taiwan region, the transfer of electronic manufacturing to the Chinese mainland is an important factor. From the perspective of the international environment, although the SMT industry in India, Vietnam, and Eastern Europe will develop, it will not pose a major threat to the status of the world’s electronic manufacturing power in the near future. In short, China will remain the world’s largest SMT market for some time to come.
3. Industry development trend
SMT PCB assembly is supplemented by factors such as smt production line, SMT equipment, SMT packaging components, SMT process materials, so the development of SMT PCB assembly technology requires the comprehensive development of various factors. The same industry is expected to show the following development trends:
(1) Development of SMT production line
A. The smt production line is developing in the direction of a flexible production environment with information integration. At present, electronic products are developing in the direction of newer, faster, multi-variety, and small batches. This requires the production preparation time of SMT to be as short as possible. In order to achieve this goal, It is necessary to overcome the disconnection between the design link and the production link, and the application of CIMS (Computer Integrated Manufacturing System) can completely solve this problem. CIMS is centered on the database, and transfers the data in the design environment to various automated processing equipment through the computer network, and can control and supervise this automated processing equipment, forming a system including design and manufacturing, testing, production process management, material supply, and products Comprehensive automation system for all activities such as marketing management. CIMS can bring very significant economic benefits to enterprises: improve product quality, effective equipment utilization, and flexible manufacturing capabilities, greatly shorten product design cycles and time to market. Because of the many advantages of CIMS, it can be foreseen that the application of CIMS in the production line will become more and more extensive.
B. The SMT production line is developing towards the high efficiency of the connection. High production efficiency is an important performance index to measure the production line. The production efficiency of the SMT production line is reflected in the production efficiency and control efficiency. Nowadays, market competition is extremely fierce, and high efficiency is the goal that every industry must pursue.
C. The SMT production line is developing towards green and environmental protection. As a part of industrial production, it will destroy the living environment without exception. This reminds us that the production line should not only consider the production scale and production capacity but also consider the impact of SMT production on the environment. From SMT line design, SMT equipment selection, process material selection, environmental and logistics management, process waste treatment, and The entire line of process management takes into account the requirements of environmental protection. The green production line is also the future development direction of SMT production line.
(2) The development of SMT equipment The update and development of SMT equipment represents the level of surface assembly technology.
The development of new SMT equipment is developing in the direction of efficiency, flexibility, intelligence, and environmental protection. This is determined by market competition and is also technological progress. Required.
(3) Development of SMT packaged components mainly include surface mount components (SMC), surface mount devices (SMD) and surface mount electronics (SMB).
SMC is developing towards large capacity while miniaturizing its volume. SMD has undergone a development from a large volume and few pins to a large volume and multiple pins, and now it has begun to develop from a large volume and multiple pins to a small volume and multiple pins. With the development of electronic assembly in the direction of higher density, SMB is developing in the direction of multi-layer, high-density, and high-reliability. Many SMBs have as many as a dozen or more layers, and multi-layer flexible SMBs are also developing rapidly.
(4) Development of SMT process materials Commonly used SMT process materials include
strip solder, cream solder, flux, and so on. For soldiers, the current high call is to use lead-free soldiers. The main reason is that lead is harmful to the human body. For environmental protection considerations, lead-free solder is the mainstream at present and even in the future. The function of the flux is to remove oxides on the metal surface, keep the surface clean from oxidation, heat conduction, etc. Considering various factors such as environmental protection and cost, no-clean welding technology is a comprehensive technology that combines materials, equipment, process, environmental and human factors. Its production has promoted the transformation of manufacturing process technology, and its Promotion affects all aspects of related industries. The organic combination of management factors and technical factors is an important part of the implementation of this technology. With the development of related technologies and the unremitting efforts of researchers, new content will be given to the 21st-century no-clean welding technology.
4. The competitive landscape of the domestic market.
My country’s SMT industry has formed a tripartite trend in the Pearl River Delta, the Yangtze River Delta, and the Bohai Rim. SMT in China is mainly concentrated in the eastern coastal areas, among which provinces and cities such as Guangdong, Fujian, Zhejiang, Shanghai, Jiangsu, Shandong, Tianjin, Beijing and Liaoning account for more than 80% of the total SMT in the country. In terms of regions, the Pearl River Delta and surrounding regions are the strongest, the Yangtze River Delta region is second, and the Bohai Rim region is third. For the Pearl River Delta region, due to the development of the SMT industry in the past few years, a relatively complete industrial chain and supporting industrial environment have been formed. Therefore, the Pearl River Delta region has obvious advantages in undertaking industrial transfer; the Yangtze River Delta region The rapid growth of the SMT industry mainly comes from the transfer of the global SMT industry, especially the transfer of placement machine production. For historical reasons, the development of equipment manufacturing in the Yangtze River Delta has a relatively solid foundation. At the same time, the Yangtze River Delta region has a relatively developed manufacturing industry for middle and high-end electronic products such as notebooks and mobile phones. In addition, coupled with the unique geographical advantages of the Yangtze River Delta region, the Yangtze River Delta region undertakes a considerable part of the global SMT industry transfer. Although the total amount of SMT in the Bohai Rim is far behind the Pearl River Delta and the Yangtze River Delta, it has great growth potential and strong development momentum.
5. The main obstacles to entering the industry
(1) Qualification barriers to enter the supply chain of large enterprises. The stability of product quality in SMT PCB assembly is essential to the normal function of terminal electronic equipment. Therefore, if a manufacturer wants to become a supplier of a large-scale brand enterprise, it must not only meet industry standards but also pass strict supplier qualification certification. Large-scale brand companies have certified their suppliers for at least one year. During the process of certification, they will put forward strict requirements on the supplier’s production process, quality management, working environment, and even business conditions, and generally require multiple rectifications before they can pass. Qualification certification, and then pass a considerable period of small-batch supply test before it can officially become its supplier. Once the manufacturing company has passed the final review of supplier qualifications, it will be included in the supply chain of large-scale brand companies and can accept purchases from their production bases. Moreover, once the cooperative relationship is determined, these large-scale brand companies usually do not easily change their suppliers in order to ensure product quality and maintain the stability of supply. This strict qualification of suppliers and the stable customer relationship based on long-term cooperation has formed a strong qualification barrier for companies that intend to enter the industry.
(2) Barriers to capital and production scale smt industry In product manufacturing, in order to meet customer demand for products with different precision in a timely manner, more funds must be invested in the purchase of advanced production equipment to enhance the production capacity of the enterprise; the purchase of sophisticated testing equipment, Ensure the quality of the company’s products; purchase complete environmental protection facilities to build the company’s green brand. In addition, companies also need a large investment of working capital to improve the material procurement system. If the production company only charges low processing fees through patching, its development space and profit margin will be greatly squeezed. At the same time, only by realizing large-scale production can purchasing costs and production costs are effectively reduced.
(3) Technical barriers The smt industry needs strong overall technical strength. Process technology, quality control level, and production management technology are all very important, requiring long-term practice and accumulation. At the same time, because downstream electronic products are updated quickly, companies need to continuously update and improve process technology, quality control, and production management for a long time.